The first discovered chemiluminescence phenomenon was found in
living organisms, such as fireflies, now known as bioluminescence,
which is named for the visible light emitted by living organisms.
In the late 1980s, Dubois studied the hot and cold water extract of
fluorescent beetlein and found that in the presence of oxygen,
luminescence occurs when hot water extract and cold water extract
are mixed. By the end of the 19th century, it was discovered that
simple non-biological organic compounds can also produce
chemiluminescence. In 1877, Radziszewski discovered that ruthenium
(2,4,5-triphenylimidazole) is oxidized by an agent such as hydrogen
peroxide in an alkaline medium to emit green light. This reagent is
still widely used today.
In 1935, Gleu and Petsch  reported for the first time that the
reaction of Glossy (N,N-dimethyldiazidin nitrate) with hydrogen
peroxide can produce chemiluminescence. Many reductions are made in
the determination of glucose. Applications have been obtained for
the determination of substances. Since then, the discovery of the
chemiluminescence phenomenon of acridinium ester derivatives, the
synthesis of chemiluminescent labeling reagents and
chemiluminescence immunoassay have become a hot research topic in
the 1980s, which has promoted the application of such analytical
methods in body composition analysis. However, since the light
intensity of most chemiluminescence phenomena is very weak and
fleeting, the progress of early chemiluminescence research has been
slow, and almost no substantive application has been made. It was
not until the 1960s that the detection of faint light that was
difficult to test in the past became possible, and
chemiluminescence entered the era of quantitative analysis. The
rapid oxidation of carbohydrates with free radicals as the initial
reactants, the emergence of new systems such as fluorescent dyes
such as fluorescein and eosin, and chemiluminescence of peroxidic
oxalates reacting with hydrogen peroxide. It has played an
important role in the high sensitivity detection of catechins,
amino acids, and steroids.
2 The basic principle of chemiluminescence reaction
Chemiluminescence is the light produced during a chemical reaction.
Usually this process can be described as:
A + B → [I]*→ Product + Light (1.1)
Where [I]* is the excited state product formed by the reaction of
reactants A and B. The material in the excited state is unstable
and will quickly transition to a lower energy state (such as the
ground state), while the energy is light (usually The form of
visible light is released . The chemiluminescence reaction can
be divided into two categories according to the manner in which the
excited state product is produced: one is an excited state product
directly formed by a chemical reaction of a reactant in the system;
and the other is a system which is easy to receive energy. The
fluorescent substance is converted into an excited state after
obtaining the energy released by the chemical reaction.
Chemiluminescence can be applied to analytical measurements because
the intensity of chemiluminescence is related to the rate of
chemiluminescence, so all factors that influence the rate of
reaction can be used as a basis for establishing assays. That is, a
chemiluminescence process also includes a process of
chemiluminescence reaction. Therefore, the intensity of
chemiluminescence (ICL) depends on the rate of the chemical
reaction, the efficiency of the excited state product, and the
luminous efficiency of the excited state material.
ICL= ФCLdc/dt = ФEXФEMdc/dt (1.2)
Where ICL is the intensity of chemiluminescence (number of photons
emitted per second); dc/dt is the rate of chemical reaction (number
of molecules per second); ФCL is the quantum yield of
chemiluminescence (number of photons emitted by each molecule
participating in the reaction) ФEX represents the excited state
quantum yield (excited state produced by each molecule
participating in the reaction); ФEM represents the luminescence
quantum yield (the number of photons generated per excited state).
For a certain chemiluminescence reaction, ФCL is a certain value,
but the measurement of chemiluminescence is susceptible to chemical
reaction conditions such as pH, ionic strength, solution
composition, temperature, etc., factors affecting the chemical
reaction rate or any quantum efficiency. Both will change the
luminous intensity. Therefore, the concentration of a substance in
the reaction system can be determined by measuring the intensity of
chemiluminescence under certain chemical reaction conditions. Since
ICL = Ф CLdc / dt is integrated over time, ICL = ФCLc is obtained,
and the luminescence intensity is proportional to the concentration
of the reactant or product.
3 acridine chemiluminescence system
Lucigenin (N, N-dimethyldiazetidine nitrate) is one of the acridine
compounds and one of the most widely studied and widely used
luminescent reagents. It was first discovered by Glen and Petscsh
in 1935. . Li Guanghao  studied the dynamic properties,
photoluminescence spectroscopy, chemiluminescence spectroscopy and
chemiluminescence mechanism of luster chemiluminescence system.
This reaction is a fast kinetic reaction and is particularly
suitable for post-column detection by capillary electrophoresis or
chromatography. Among them, the most studied one is the acridinium
ester compound. Under alkaline conditions, the acridinium ester is
hydrolyzed by hydrogen peroxide to produce chemiluminescence.
McCapra et al. conducted a detailed study on the chemiluminescence
mechanism of acridine derivatives [6-8].
Generally, the chemiluminescence lifetime of acridine derivatives
is quite short, but the modification of the modified acridine ring
and the leaving group accelerates or retards this rapid kinetic
process. Ruberto et al  introduced the reaction into capillary
electrophoresis while isolating four different substituents of
acridinium ester. In the detection of biologically active
substances, research on this system has also been reported.
Adrenalin and isoproterenol were measured under alkaline conditions
by PL Wintrod and GIMakhatadze et al. . Methods for the
determination of Vc using the Fe3+-Lucigenin luminescence system
have also been reported . There are also a variety of drugs and
biologically active substances, such as isoproterenol ,
benzenetriol , canamycin , ascorbic acid [15,16], etc. have
achieved satisfactory results. .
The chemiluminescence quantum yield of acridinium ester is higher
than that of luminol, and the acridine ester labeling condition is
mild, the labeling rate is high, and the labeling does not affect
the separation, so it has broad application prospects, often as
chemiluminescence immunoassay and DNA luminescence detection. The
chemiluminescent label of the needle is widely used for sensitive
detection and diagnosis of various diseases, and can also be used
for separation detection of amino compounds containing proteins,
nucleic acids, peptides and the like.